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Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is the efficacy of autogenous vaccines?

All autogenous vaccines are ‘tailor made’ for each application from a pathogen isolated from infected animals, on a specific farm or unit and therefore, efficacy is unknown.  However, the bacterial vaccines are made to a high titre and with an oily adjuvant to maximise antigenic challenge.

  • How long will it take to manufacture the vaccine?

Most herd vaccines (AVA-S) take 6 to 10 weeks to manufacture, depending on the nature of the organism.  We are actively working to streamline the manufacturing process for quicker turnaround time.  Some safety doses are ready for dispatch in as little as five weeks.

  • How long will it take to manufacture my individual papillomavirus vaccine?

Turnaround time for individual wart vaccines is 1 – 2 weeks.

  • Do animals require more than one dose of vaccine? How much should I prescribe?

It is important to accurately assess the number of animals likely to require vaccination, allowing for herd replacements.  In general, naïve animals require two doses of vaccine in the first instance (prime and boost).  A single annual booster is usually recommended after the initial prime-boost course for some pathogens.  Contact the lab for more information.

  • What are the storage conditions for the vaccines?

All herd (AVA-S) vaccines are shipped via the cold chain.  Individual vaccines (AVA-I) are shipped Next Day Signed For delivery.  Upon arrival, all vaccines should be stored at between 2 – 8 ⁰C until use.  Do not freeze.

  • What is the safety dose and safety test certificate?

VMD regulations require a safety test to be performed in the epidemiological unit for all batches of autogenous vaccines.  A double dose of vaccine (the safety dose) must be administered to two healthy target animals and monitored for any adverse reactions.  After seven days, if no adverse reactions have been observed, the prescribing veterinarian must return a signed safety test certificate to NWL – Leeds.  The vaccine batch cannot be released until the safety test certificate has been returned.

  • What is the difference between a ‘primary dose’ and a ‘booster dose’?

The primary dose should be ordered for animals who have not received the specific vaccine before.  The primary vaccination course consists of two injections of vaccine in total, two to four weeks apart.  The booster dose is a single injection and can be ordered for animals who have received the vaccine before.